National Minority Health Month: Bridging Observance and Action to Achieve Health Equity

By Cara V. James, PhD, Director, CMS Office of Minority Health 

Each April we observe National Minority Health Month. This year’s theme is, Bridging Health Equity Across Communities. This theme acknowledges the important role that social determinants of health play in individual and community well-being. It also evokes action and activity  around health equity. For it is not enough for us to simply observe National Minority Health Month and share statistics on long-standing health and health care disparities. We should strive to move the needle by reducing these disparities and improving health care quality and outcomes for all. As this National Minority Health Month comes to a close, we still have work to do, and I’m hoping each of us can take a moment and consider the following question:

What will it take to achieve health equity?

CMS has adopted a health equity framework that focuses on increasing understanding and awareness of disparities, developing and disseminating solutions, and implementing sustainable action. As we have sought to implement this framework, we have identified a number of areas that need to be considered when addressing a specific disparity– the social determinants of health, data, and the seven “A’s”.
First and foremost, we need to acknowledge there is a problem to be addressed. We need to agree on the goal and identify what resources will be necessary to meet it. Resources can be difficult to come by, so determining how the goal aligns with existing priorities may be key. Next we must decide what actions do we need to take to achieve our goal? Are we already doing some or all of them?

Seven A’s for Addressing Health Equity

  1. Acknowledge there is a problem to be addressed.
  2. Agree on the goal, and identify what resources are necessary to meet it.
  3. Align the goal with existing priorities.
  4. Determine what actions are needed to achieve the goal.
  5. Create alliances to implement the actions.
  6. Analyze progress, and adjust the plan as necessary.
  7. Have shared accountability for reaching the goal.

 

We know that health equity cannot be achieved by a single individual or organization, so forging alliances and working together is critical. We also know that we must be able to measure our progress. Having data and doing analysis of it are important for the development, assessment, and revision of our health equity plan. The last of the A’s requires us to be accountable and ask the question – what happens if we do not reach our goal? There shouldn’t be one person or organization responsible for the success or failure of a plan, but a shared accountability.

While we are considering each of the seven A’s, we must also consider the myriad of social factors that influence health and well-being of individuals and the communities in which they reside. Whether we refer to them as social risk factors or social determinants of health, we know that things such as socioeconomic position, race, ethnicity, cultural context, gender, social relationships, and residential and community context affect our health more than the care we receive from our health care providers. We must consider these factors as we think about our goals, the actions we need to take, and the alliances we forge.

The CMS Office of Minority Health is helping to embed these actions across CMS and HHS. For example, we routinely share HEDIS and CAHPS quality measures stratified by race, ethnicity, and gender, providing health plans with actionable data to innovate and prioritize health equity and quality improvement activities. Organizations participating in the Accountable Health Communities Model will be montoring disparities as they link beneficiaries with commmunity services. We are working with our sister agency, the Health Resources and Services Administration’s, Federal Office of Rural Health Policy on a Chronic Care Management Education and Outreach Campaign. The campaign is focused on professionals and consumers in underserved rural areas, and racial and ethnic minorities. We are also collaborating with organizations outside the federal government to help reduce readmissions among racially and ethnically diverse beneficiaries, and to develop their own plans for achieving health equity.

As we continue on our path to equity, we encourage you to consider the seven A’s, the role of social risk factors, and the importance of data in your day-to-day activities. Recommit every day to the ultimate goal of achieving health equity by bridging observance and action during the remainder of National Minority Health Month and throughout the year.

To learn more about achieving health equity and other activities underway at the CMS Office of Minority Health, visit: go.cms.gov/omh. 

CMS’ Ongoing Commitment to Minority Health

April 26, 2017

By: Seema Verma, Administrator, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)

As many of you know, April is National Minority Health Month, and it’s a privilege to be Administrator at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and take part in the observance. This year’s theme is “Bridging Health Equity Across Communities”. At CMS we have an extraordinary opportunity to improve health outcomes for the over 100 million people that we serve every day. Our primary mission is to make healthcare accessible and affordable for all Americans.

During this important month, we continue our efforts to raise awareness about disparities, and provide tools and resources to support actions to address them. In addition to our ongoing work to address these disparities through efforts like the CMS Equity Plan for Improving Quality in Medicare, the CMS Office of Minority Health released new Medicare Advantage (MA) data on racial and ethnic disparities in care. The data helps us understand the connections between a person’s race, ethnicity, and gender and the health care that they receive.

Two new reports focus on the treatment and patient care experiences for a variety of conditions. The first report looks at racial and ethnic disparities by gender and examines differences between black, Hispanic, Asian and Pacific Islander and white MA beneficiaries in rates of colorectal cancer screening, treatment for chronic lung disease and other conditions as well as their ability to access needed care.

The second report looks at gender differences in access to care and quality of treatment for certain conditions among MA beneficiaries. It shows that women receive better treatment for chronic lung disease and rheumatoid arthritis and are more likely than men to receive proper follow-up care after being hospitalized for a mental health disorder.

This tremendous research can only point out the problems. We need healthcare professionals, stakeholder organizations, researchers, and community groups to use these CMS reports, along with our other tools and resources, to develop interventions for racially and ethnically diverse Medicare beneficiaries. 

Through transparency, flexibility, and innovation, we will use every available tool to improve the Medicare program and promote the availability of high value and efficiently-provided care for all beneficiaries. We do this, by working together with plans, providers and the patients we serve to find ways to reduce the disparities highlighted in these reports and find effective health solutions that work for all communities and all Americans.

 

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Supporting Comprehensive and Innovative Care for Children: Request for Information on a Potential Pediatric Alternative Payment Model

February 27, 2017

By Patrick Conway, M.D., M.Sc., Acting Administrator, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; Deidre Gifford, M.D., M.P.H., Deputy Director, Center for Medicaid and CHIP Services; Ellen-Marie Whelan, N.P., Ph.D., Chief Population Health Officer, Center for Medicaid and CHIP Services; and Alex Billioux, M.D., D.Phil., Director, Division of Population Health Incentives and Infrastructure, Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation

In partnership with states and providers, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) plays a leading role in safeguarding the health of America’s future by providing coverage for more than one in three American children[1]. Through Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program’s (CHIP) mandatory and optional benefits, children receive access to a spectrum of comprehensive and preventive health care services aimed at providing a sound start for lifelong health. As a result, children enrolled in Medicaid and CHIP lead the nation in participation in preventive care and access to needed care[2].

CMS and states have also demonstrated consistent commitment to improving the health of children through care redesign and innovation in programs such as Medicaid Health Homes, the Medicaid Innovation Accelerator Program, and models tested under the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (Innovation Center), including the State Innovation Models Initiative and Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns Initiative. To build on those efforts, the Innovation Center, in partnership with the Center for Medicaid and Chip Services (CMCS), is releasing a Request for Information (RFI) today seeking input on the design of alternative payment models focused on improving the health of children and youth covered by Medicaid and CHIP. As the insurer of a third of the nation’s children and a leader in health care innovation, CMS is uniquely positioned to improve the health of America’s children.

We know there is more to health than health care alone, and for children, factors such as sound nutrition, safe living environments, responsive adult caregivers, and nurturing social relationships are especially critical for healthy growth and development. Inadequate or inconsistent access to these factors can have physical and behavioral impacts that reverberate throughout a child’s life course as he or she grows into adulthood. Some children and youth enrolled in Medicaid and CHIP, especially those that are high-need and high-risk, may experience barriers to accessing the optimal combination of child-focused programs and services that are available to address these critical factors. Through the RFI, we are seeking input on approaches to improve the quality and reduce the cost of care for children and youth enrolled in Medicaid and CHIP. In particular, we are exploring concepts that encourage pediatric providers to collaborate with health-related social service providers (e.g., early childhood development programs, child welfare services, and home and community based service providers) at the state and local levels and share accountability for health outcomes for children and youth enrolled in Medicaid and CHIP.

CMS seeks input through the RFI from the broad community of child and youth-focused stakeholders on concepts critical to addressing the comprehensive health needs of children and youth, such as:

  • Opportunities and impediments to extending and enhancing integrated service model concepts like accountable care organizations (ACOs) to the pediatric population;
  • Flexibilities and supports states and providers may need in order to offer such models of care to a state’s pediatric population; and
  • Approaches for states and providers to coordinate Medicaid and CHIP benefits and waivers with other health-related social services for children and youth.

Investing in child health can provide lifelong benefits and improve the nation’s health. We look forward to front-end comments from our state partners and other stakeholders who share our dedication to improving the health of our nation’s children.

For more information on the RFI, please visit: https://innovation.cms.gov/initiatives/pediatric-apm. To be assured consideration, RFI comments must be received by April 7, 2017.

[1] Department of Health and Human Services. 2015 Annual Report on the Quality of Care for Children in Medicaid and CHIP. February, 2016. https://www.medicaid.gov/medicaid/quality-of-care/downloads/2015-child-sec-rept.pdf

[2] See CHIPRA Mandated Evaluation of the Children’s Health Insurance Program: Final Findings, available at

http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/pdfs/health/rpt_chipevaluation.pdf; Kreider AR, French B, Aysola J, Saloner B, Noonan KG, Rubin DM. Quality of Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care for Children in Low-Income Families. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(1):43-51. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3028

 

Mark Your Calendars: January 31st is quickly approaching

If you still need health coverage for 2017, you have until January 31st to sign up for coverage through HealthCare.gov. Through the website you can review your choices and see if you qualify for financial help. Issuers have confirmed that consumers who select a plan and pay their first premium will have coverage for 2017. And, insurers have signed contracts to provide coverage through 2017.

Consumers who want coverage – whether you are new to the Health Insurance Marketplace or have previously enrolled in health coverage – can visit HealthCare.gov, update your information, or add it for the first time, and select a plan. You may also compare plans online or on your mobile device. You can review the core plan features like cost-sharing and provider networks.

When you log onto HealthCare.gov, you need three pieces of information – your zip code, family size, and household income – to see what plans are available to you and to get an estimate of how much the plans cost. If you had coverage through HealthCare.gov for 2016, you can come back to update your information and compare your options for 2017. If you have questions or want to talk through your options with a trained professional, enrollment specialists are available all day, every day, at 1-800-318-2596. Free, confidential, in-person assistance is also available at enrollment sites and events in your state. Visit localhelp.healthcare.gov to find assistance in your community.

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Data Brief: Sharp reduction in avoidable hospitalizations among long-term care facility residents

By Niall Brennan, Director of the CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics, and CMS Chief Data Officer; and, Tim Engelhardt, Director of the Federal Coordinated Health Care Office at CMS

 

Data Brief: Sharp reduction in avoidable hospitalizations among long-term care facility residents

For long-term care facility residents, avoidable hospitalizations can be dangerous, disruptive, and disorienting. Keeping our most vulnerable citizens healthy when they are residents of long-term care facilities[1] and reducing potentially avoidable hospital stays has been a point of emphasis for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS).

Over the last several years, with the help from the Affordable Care Act, Medicare and Medicaid have worked with other federal government agencies, states, patient organizations, and others to identify and prevent those health conditions that have caused long-term care residents to be unnecessarily hospitalized. Because of these efforts, we have seen a dramatic reduction in avoidable hospitalizations over the last several years, according to below analysis released by CMS today.

In 2001, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) first identified a set of measures designed to identify hospitalizations that could potentially be avoided with appropriate outpatient care. They include hospital admissions for largely preventable or manageable conditions like bacterial pneumonia, urinary tract infections, congestive heart failure, dehydration, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. More recently, CMS’s own Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics found that instances of these potentially avoidable hospitalizations (PAH) were disproportionally high among some of our nation’s most vulnerable people, those dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid living in long-term care facilities.Hospitalizations of Long-Term Care Facility Residents in 2015

Treating conditions before hospitalization and preventing these conditions whenever possible would not only help long-term care facility residents stay healthy, but may also save Medicare and Medicaid money. After carefully examining this problem, CMS and others focused on reducing the instances of potentially avoidable hospitalizations from these facilities.

In 2015, Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries living in long-term care facilities had a total of 352,000 hospitalizations. Of this number, Medicare beneficiaries eligible for full Medicaid benefits living in long-term care facilities (LTC Duals) accounted for 270,000 hospitalizations. And, almost a third (approximately 80,000) of these hospitalizations were caused by six potentially avoidable conditions: bacterial pneumonia, urinary tract infections, congestive heart failure, dehydration, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, and skin ulcers.

Through the concerted effort by CMS and many other to address these potentially avoidable conditions, real progress has been made to improve the health and wellbeing of some of our country’s most vulnerable citizens. In recent years, the overall rate of hospitalizations declined by 13 percent for dually eligible Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. But we have seen even larger decreases in hospitalization rates for potentially avoidable conditions among beneficiaries living in long-term care facilities.  Specifically, between 2010 and 2015, the hospitalization rate for the six potentially avoidable conditions listed above decreased by 31 percent for Medicare and Medicaid dually-eligible beneficiaries living in long-term care facilities.

In 2010, the rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations for dually-eligible beneficiaries in long term care facilities was 227 per 1,000 beneficiaries; by 2015 the rate had decreased to 157 per 1,000.[2] This decrease in potentially avoidable hospitalizations happened nationwide, with improvement in all 50 states. The reduced rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations means that dually-eligible long-term care facility residents avoided 133,000 hospitalizations over the past five years. 

Percent Change in Medicare Hospitalization Rates Since 2010

Chart Showing Percent Change in Medicare Hospitalization Rates Since 2010Note: FFS (fee-for-service), LTC (long-term care facility), PAH (potentially avoidable hospitalization)

Potentially Avoidable Hospitalization Rates for Dual-Eligible Beneficiaries Living in Long-Term Care Facilities, by StatePotentially Avoidable Hospitalization Rates for Dual-Eligible Beneficiaries Living in Long-Term Care Facilities, by State

Note: Labeled states contain facilities in the CMS “Initiative to reduce avoidable hospitalizations among long-term care facility residents”, discussed below.

This success would not be possible without the committed work by those who directly serve older adults and people with disabilities. We also should consider the range of other contributing factors, including:

  • An initiative launched in 2011 by the Medicare-Medicaid Coordination Office, CMS Innovation Center, and other partners to reduce avoidable hospitalizations among nursing facility residents in seven sites across the country.[3] This initiative aimed at keeping dually-eligible long-term care residents healthy by focusing on preventable conditions that lead to hospitalizations.[4]
  • The AHRQ Safety Program for Long-Term Care significantly reduced catheter-associated urinary tract infections in hundreds of participating long-term care facilities nationwide, which helped prevent a recognized cause of hospitalizations in residents of these facilities.
  • This work is in addition to the many other efforts and initiatives, including the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, and systemic efforts to reduce readmissions through the Partnership for Patients;
  • The efforts to align care with quality through Accountable Care Organizations, the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement models, and other delivery system reforms;
  • And, finally, the countless other industry-led initiatives focusing on quality improvement and specifically reducing hospitalization rates among long-term care facility residents.

This success shows that a sustained commitment to smarter spending across the entire health care system can yield dramatic results and improve the lives of vulnerable Americans. These results are also consistent with other ongoing collaborative efforts to improve the quality of care patients received through preventing hospital-acquired conditions where approximately 125,000 fewer patients died due to hospital-acquired conditions and more than $28 billion in health care costs were saved from 2010 through 2015.

Finding the best possible long-term care facility care for a loved one is one of the most difficult decisions family members can make. Family members want to be assured that their loved one will receive the highest quality of care in a healthy environment. And thanks to efforts across the health care industry, and with tools from the Affordable Care Act that allow CMS to improve quality and test innovative strategies, these residents are living in safer, healthier environments.

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[1] Analysis includes residents living in nursing homes or nursing facilities. It does not include residents receiving skilled nursing facility services paid through the Medicare program.

[2] The population of dual-eligible beneficiaries  living in long-term care facilities consists of Medicare FFS beneficiaries with full Medicaid benefits residing in  long-term care  facilities but not receiving skilled nursing facility services. The number of days that beneficiaries met this criteria was annualized so that 365 days was equivalent to one beneficiary. Hospitalizations of long-term care residents were counted as potentially avoidable if the primary diagnosis of the admission was bacterial pneumonia, urinary tract infections, congestive heart failure, dehydration, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, or skin ulcers.

[3] The seven sites were: Nevada, Nebraska, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, Indiana, and Alabama. Note that six of these sites have continued into “Phase II” of the Initiative, which launched in October 2016.

[4] For more information, see the Initiative website at: https://innovation.cms.gov/initiatives/rahnfr/

CMS announces extension of 2016 reporting deadline and intends to modify 2017 requirements for reporting eCQM data under the Inpatient Quality Reporting and EHR Incentive Programs for Hospitals

By Kate Goodrich, MD
Director, CMS Center for Clinical Standards and Quality & CMS Chief Medical Officer

Today, I am pleased to announce that the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is notifying eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting (IQR) and/or the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Programs of a deadline extension.  The extension is for the submission of electronic Clinical Quality Measure (eCQM) data for the 2016 reporting period, pertaining to the fiscal year (FY) 2018 payment determination.  The deadline has been changed from Tuesday, February 28, 2017, to Monday, March 13, 2017, at 11:59 p.m. PT.  This extension is being granted to provide hospitals additional time to submit eCQM data.

CMS also intends to initiate the rulemaking process regarding modifications to the eCQM requirements established in the FY 2017 Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) final rule in response to concerns raised by stakeholders.  In order to help reduce reporting burdens while supporting the long term goals of these programs, we intend to include proposals regarding the 2017 eCQM reporting requirements for the Hospital IQR and EHR Incentive Programs for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals in the FY 2018 IPPS proposed rule that we anticipate to be published in the late spring of 2017.

Specifically, in the FY 2018 IPPS proposed rule, CMS plans to address stakeholder concerns regarding challenges associated with hospitals transitioning to new EHR systems or products, upgrading to EHR technology certified to the 2015 Edition, modifying workflows, and addressing data element mapping, as well as the time allotted for hospitals to incorporate updates to eCQM specifications in 2017.  CMS is also considering to propose in future rulemaking to modify the number of eCQMs required to be reported for 2017 as well as to shorten the eCQM reporting period.

We believe that these efforts reflect the commitment of CMS to create a health information technology infrastructure that elevates patient-centered care, improves health outcomes, and supports the healthcare providers who care for patients.  We continuously strive to work in partnership with hospitals and the provider community to improve quality of care and health outcomes of patients, reduce cost, and increase access to care.

For more information about eCQM reporting for the Hospital IQR and EHR Incentive Programs, please visit the QualityNet.org and the CMS.gov websites.

CMS partners with commercial and state insurers to support primary care practices and reduce clinician burden

By    Dr. Patrick Conway, Acting Principal Deputy Administrator and Deputy Administrator          for Innovation & Quality and
Pauline Lapin, MHS, Director, Seamless Care Models Group, Center for Medicare &                  Medicaid Innovation

Over the past few years, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has committed to supporting clinicians by providing them with actionable data. This is part of the Administration-wide initiative to unlock government data to promote innovation and best practices. Today, we are highlighting one way we have reached this goal and sharing how we plan to use the lessons we’ve learned in future efforts.

With the growing use of health information technology to support care delivery, using data to guide patient care has become increasingly important and common. Not surprisingly, data transparency has become a focus of primary care clinicians. In the past, practices were often left wondering what happened to patients outside of the four walls of their primary care offices. Even when practices do have access to data, clinicians often spend time sifting through multiple reports from different insurers, each with its own set of measures, and format, and much of the data is only applicable to a portion of the clinicians’ patients. Aggregated data allows clinicians to get an overall snapshot of their patient population to identify care gaps and target areas for population health improvement. It also reduces burden and saves staff time, which helps primary care clinicians focus on what they were trained to do: deliver high-quality patient care.

In the Comprehensive Primary Care initiative (CPC), a model from the CMS Innovation Center that ran from 2012 to 2016 and aimed to strengthen primary care, CMS convened payers in seven regions to test whether delivering comprehensive primary care at each CPC practice site — supported by multi-payer payment reform, the continuous use of data to guide improvement, and meaningful use of health information technology — could achieve better care, smarter spending, and healthier people. In three of these regions – Colorado, the greater Tulsa region of Oklahoma, and the Cincinnati-Dayton region of Ohio and Kentucky – CMS and payers collaborated to produce reports that combined privacy-protected patient-level health data from multiple payers into a single report given to participating primary care practices. Payers worked closely with participating CPC practices and CMS to define priorities, governance structures, and refine the format and content of the reports. In turn, data aggregation specialists collaborated with the payers in each region to combine and streamline delivery of that data, ensuring the highest level of security of the health information.

“This was a much anticipated solution to the complexities posed by not having access to consistent claims data, and a continuous desire to improve our approach to meeting CPC Milestones [program requirements],” said Dr. Austin Bailey, Medical Director of University of Colorado Health (UCHealth), which participated in CPC. By having all data in one place, UCHealth practices were able to quickly and easily identify gaps in patient care and see exactly what services their patients were receiving outside of their practices.

“Our practices will continue to leverage the use of aggregated claims data using Stratus [the tool for practices in Colorado] to identify the cost patterns of high risk patients — for example, among our patients with diabetes, is the greatest cost associated with specialists, emergency department utilization, or medications?  Having this information across multiple payers makes it more relevant and helps to build our confidence in selecting the appropriate interventions, identifying trends, and effectively assigning care management resources,” said Dr. Bailey.

Many CPC practices are taking the important skills and lessons they’ve learned into the newest CMS Innovation Center primary care model, Comprehensive Primary Care Plus (CPC+). Built on the foundation of CPC, CPC+ began this month on January 1, 2017, supporting primary care practices located in 14 regions across the country, with over 50 commercial payers and state Medicaid agencies partnering with CMS.

We expect that aggregated data reports will be a top priority for CPC+ practices and partner payers and we look forward to the opportunity to build on the tremendous success we’ve had with data aggregation in CPC. Public and private payers working in partnership with primary care clinicians, engaging patients, and delivering the right data and information is essential to improving our health system and the care delivered to patients.

Vendors and partner payers that participated in CPC data aggregation with CMS, by region:

Colorado
Vendor: Best Doctors, Inc.
Participating payers: Aetna, Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Cigna, Colorado Choice Health Plans, Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing (Medicaid), Medicare fee-for-service, Rocky Mountain Health Plans, UnitedHealthcare

Greater Tulsa region
Vendor: My Health Access Network, Inc.
Participating payers: Blue Cross Blue Shield of Oklahoma, CommunityCare, Medicare fee-for-service, Oklahoma Health Care Authority (Medicaid)

Cincinnati-Dayton region
Vendor: The Health Collaborative
Participating payers: Aetna, CareSource, Buckeye Health Plan, Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Humana, Medical Mutual of Ohio, Medicare fee-for-service, Ohio Medicaid, UnitedHealthcare

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